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    Public Health Professionals

    Statistics and Publications:

    General and summary:

    CDC: Healthy Swimming Data/Statistics​

    MMWR: Foodborne and Waterborne Disease Outbreaks – United States, 1971-2012



    MMWR Surveillance Summaries: Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis, 2011-2012​

    MMWR: Using Molecular Characterization to Support Investigations of Aquatic Facility-Associated Outbreaks of Cryptosporidiosis- Alabama, Arizona, and Ohio, 2016 


    Drowning and injuries:

    MMWR: Pool Chemical Injuries in Public and Residential Settings - United States, 2008-2017, and New York, 2018

    MMWR: Fatal and Nonfatal Drowning Outcomes Related to Dangerous Underwater Breath-Holding Behaviors- NY State, 1988-2011​

    Inhalational Chlorine Injuries at Public Aquatic Venues — California, 2008–2015


    Harmful algal blooms:

    MMWR: Harmful Algal Bloom-Associated Illness in Humans and Dogs Identified Through a Pilot Surveillance System- New York, 2015



    See Legionella page

    Naegleria  fowleri:

    MMWR: Notes from the Field: Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated with Exposure to Swimming Pool Water Supplied by an Overland Pipe – Inyo County, California, 2015


    MMWR: Norovir​us Outbreak Associated with a Natural Lake Used for Recreation — Oregon, 2014​​​


     Additional Resources:

    CDC: Online Environmental Public Health Course  (See Swimming Pools and Recreational Facilities) 

    CDC: Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC)​ 

    Council for the MAHC (CMAHC)​ Become a CMAHC member today to be eligible to vote on MAHC changes and help ensure that public health’s voice is heard!