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    What is marijuana?

    • Marijuana is derived from the hemp plant, cannabis sativa1
    • It contains THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) which is the primary psychoactive substance in marijuana1
    • It can be smoked using a cigarette, a pipe, or an empty cigar.  It can also be mixed into foods1
    • Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug by people over age 12, and in pregnant women 2,3

    What are the medical consequences of marijuana use?

    • Hallucinations4
    • Paranoia4
    • Increased heart rate4
    • Pulmonary effects4
           Increased risk of pulmonary infection
    • Decreased memory4
    • Social issues like relationship or career problems4

    What are the medical consequences of marijuana use in pregnancy?

    • Data is inconsistent3
    • Decreased birth weight5
    • May be associated with increased risk of depression in neonate6
    • May be associated with increased risk for marijuana use as an adult for neonate6
    • Excessive maternal weight gain7

    1. Office of National Drug Control Policy.  Street Terms: Drug and Drug Trade.  Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/streetterms/. 
    2. Agrawal, A. et al (2009). Simultaneous Cannabis and Tobacco use and Cannabis-Related Outcomes in Young Women [Electronic Version]. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 101, 8-12.
    3.   Wendell, A.D (2013). Overview and epidemiology of substance abuse in pregnancy. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 56. 91-96.
    4. Drug Facts: Marijuana.  Retrieved January 15, 2014 from The National Institute on Drug Abuse Web site: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
    5. Schneider, M (2009). Cannabis Use in Pregnancy and Early Life and its Consequences: Animal Models [Electronic Version]. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 259, 383-393.
    6. Gray, T.R. et al (2010). Identifying Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Effects of Concurrent Tobacco Exposure on Neonatal Growth [Electronic Version]. Clinical Chemistry 56:9, 1442-1450.
    7. Van Gelder, M. et al (2010).  Characteristics of Pregnant Illicit Drug Users and Associations between Cannabis and Perinatal Outcome in a Population Based Study [Electronic Version].  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 109, 243-247. 
    January, 2014